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Urinary system

Course

12.1 Structure | function of urinary system

Please refer to the many pages on the physiology of the urinary system located within the Nursing Studies section for resources on specific topics.

The urinary system, also known as the renal system, consists of the two kidneys, ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. Each kidney consists of millions of functional units called nephrons. The purpose of the renal system is to eliminate wastes from the body, regulate blood volume and pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH. The kidneys have extensive blood supply via the renal arteries which leave the kidneys via the renal vein. Following filtration of blood and further processing, wastes (in the form of urine) exit the kidney via the ureters, tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine towards the urinary bladder, where it is stored and subsequently expelled from the body by urination (voiding). The female and male urinary system are very similar, differing only in the length of the urethra.  (read more at wikimedia.org)

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12.2 Composition | formation of urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination and excreted through the urethra. Cellular metabolism generates numerous by-products, many rich in nitrogen, that require clearance from the bloodstream. These by-products are eventually expelled from the body during urination, the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body. These chemicals can be detected and analyzed by urinalysis. Certain disease conditions can result in pathogen-contaminated urine.  (read more at wikimedia.org)

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12.3 Drugs acting on the urinary system

Please refer to the many pages on the pharmacology of the urinary system located within the Nursing Studies section for resources on specific topics.


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