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Environmental sanitation

Course

13.1 Definition | environmental sanitation

Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems include human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g., sewage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g., latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g., hand washing with soap).  (read more at wikimedia.org)

Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.  (read more at the World Health Organization page)

13.2 Definition | refuse

Waste and wastes implies unwanted or unusable materials.The term is often subjective (because waste to one person is not necessarily waste to another) and sometimes objectively inaccurate (for example, to send scrap metals to a landfill is to inaccurately classify them as waste, because they are recyclable). Examples include municipal solid waste (household trash/refuse), hazardous waste, wastewater (such as sewage, which contains bodily wastes, or surface runoff), radioactive waste, and others. (read more at wikimedia.org)

13.3 Methods | refuse disposal

Waste management is the "generation, prevention, characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse and residual disposition of solid wastes" There are various types of solid waste including municipal (residential, institutional, commercial), agricultural, and special (health care, household hazardous wastes, sewage sludge). The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.  (read more at wikimedia.org)

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13.4 Methods | human excreta disposal

13.5 Transmission of fecal-borne diseases

The fecal–oral route (or alternatively the oral–fecal route or orofecal route) is a route of transmission of a disease, when pathogens in fecal particles pass from one host and introduced into the oral cavity of another host.  (read more at wikimedia.org)

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13.6 Definition | sewage

Sewage is a water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed from a community. Also known as wastewater, it is more than 99% water and is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical constituents and the bacteriological organisms that it contains. In loose American English usage, the terms "sewage" and "sewerage" are sometimes interchanged.[1] Both words are descended from Old French assewer, derived from the Latin exaquare, "to drain out (water)". "Sewerage" refers to the infrastructure that conveys sewage.  (read more at wikimedia.org)

13.7 Definition | rodents

Rodents are mammals of the order Rodentia, characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About forty percent of all mammal species are rodents, and they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica. They are the most diversified mammalian order and can be found in a variety of terrestrial habitats, including human-made environments. There are species that are arboreal, fossorial, and semi-aquatic. Well known rodents include mice, rats, squirrels, prairie dogs, porcupines, beavers, guinea pigs, and hamsters, but rabbits, hares and pikas, which could be confused with rodents and were once included with them, are now considered to be in a separate order, Lagomorpha.  (read more at wikimedia.org)

13.8 Types | rodents

13.9 Control | rodents

Reference

Text

Hygiene and Environmental Health Module - Labspaces

Introduction to the Principles and Concepts of Hygiene and Environmental Health

Environmental Health Hazards

Personal Hygiene

Healthful Housing

Institutional Hygiene and Sanitation

Important Vectors in Public Health

Introduction to the Principles of Food Hygiene and Safety

Food Contamination and Spoilage

Foodborne Diseases and the Investigation of Disease Outbreaks

Food Protection and Preservation Methods

Hygienic Requirements of Food and Drink Establishments

Hygiene and Safety Requirements for Foods of Animal Origin

Provision of Safe Drinking Water

Treatment of Drinking Water at Household and Community Level

Community Drinking Water Source Protection

Sanitary Survey of Drinking Water

Water Pollution and its Control

Introduction to the Principles and Concepts of Waste Management

Liquid Waste Management

Latrine Construction

Latrine Utilisation – Changing Attitudes and Behaviour

Solid Waste Management

Healthcare Waste Management     

Presentation

Write-ups

Health and Sanitation - Notes on health and sanitation

“Nurses and Environmental Health.” Canadian Nurses Association. Accessed April 17, 2014. https://www.cna-aiic.ca/~/media/cna/page%20content/pdf%20en/2013/07/26/10/39/ps105_nurses_env_health_e.pdf.

Video

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